WASHINGTON Wholesale Nike Cortez Leather , June 13 (Xinhua) -- If you have trouble learning a new language as an adult, maybe you can blame your genes and brain structure, a U.S.
study suggested Monday.
The study by researchers at the University of Washington showed that genetic variations of the so-called COMT gene and a measure of the strength of the
brain's communications network -- known as "white matter"-- jointly accounted
for 46 percent of the reason for why some college students performed better than
others in the second language class.
"We are interested in understanding why individuals learn differently Wholesale Nike Cortez Free Shipping , including those who perform well and those who perform poorly," said lead author Ping Mamiya, a research scientist at the UW's
Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences (I-LABS).
"Our study shows for the first time that variations of the COMT gene are related to changes in the brain's white matter that are the result of
learning Wholesale Nike Cortez Online ," Mamiya said.
The research, published in the U.S. journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, recruited first-year college students -- 20-years-old on
average -- who had just arrived in the United States from China.
The 79 volunteers in the study had passed the university's minimum English requirement Wholesale Nike Cortez Mens , and 44 of them immediately entered a three-week immersion class intended to help international students improve their English skills.
Over the course of the three-week language class and up to eight days after the class ended, the researchers performed brain scans of all the students,
including a control group who had also just arrived from China but did not get
into the class.
The researchers used an MRI technique called diffusion tensor imaging Wholesale Nike Cortez Womens , which gives clues about the structure of the brain's connections. Better structure helps signals transfer across the brain, which may
lead to better learning.
The brain scans suggested that within a day of the immersive English training, white matter had already begun to change.
Overall Wholesale Nike Cortez Classic , foreign language exposure increased the connectivity of the brain's language circuitry, which went up over the course of the three-week
training, and then reversed after the training ended.
Using DNA samples taken from the students Wholesale Nike Cortez Ultra Moire , the researchers found that two specific forms of the COMT gene were linked to greater success in learning a second language by increasing
"Humans' abilities in learning any particular skill vary tremendously, and we want to know why," said co-author Patricia Kuhl Wholesale Nike Cortez Ultra , co-director of I-LABS. "Knowing why answers a basic science question about how the environment, our genes, and our brains really
work Wholesale Nike Cortez Sale , but could also lead to interventions that improve learning."
BEIJING, July 18 (Xinhua) -- In the case of arbitration unilaterally initiated by the former Philippine government, the ragtag arbitral tribunal of
the Permanent Court of Arbitration virtually played a madcap role in
overstepping the boundaries of international law.
From its establishment, its running process to its personnel structure and the so-called "final award", many loopholes have shown that this temporary body
is by no means just or authoritative.
AD HOC TRIBUNAL
After the release of the so-called "final award" in the case of the South China Sea arbitration, some Western media reported that the Permanent Court of
Arbitration (PCA) made the ruling, or a U.N.-backed arbitral tribunal issued the
award. However, such statements are totally untrue.
The arbitral tribunal for the case of the South China Sea arbitration was actually an ad hoc tribunal set up at the outset of a case and disbanded after
the case is closed. It has nothing to do with the International Court of Justice
(ICJ), a principal judicial organ of the United Nations (U.N.) founded according
to the U.N. Charter.
The ad hoc arbitral tribunal has no direct relationship with the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) either. The only connection
between the two is that according to the requirement of the U.N. Convention on
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), if parties of the case don't appoint their
arbitrators at the ad hoc tribunal, the ITLOS president will appoint the
Neither does the ad hoc arbitral tribunal have direct relationship with the PCA, while the latter only provided revenue and secretariat services to the
To sum up, the ad hoc South China Sea arbitral tribunal was neither a permanent arbitration facility, nor a authoritative judicial organ on the
international law of the sea. Rather, it is merely a temporary tribunal with
temporary arbitration rules.
CARELESS SELECTION OF MEMBERS
Authoritative international judicial bodies all have strict procedures for selecting their members. For instance, judges of ITLOS are voted by a majority
of UNCLOS signatory nations. Judges of the ICJ are voted at the U.N. Conference
and the U.N. Security Council, and are elected by over half of the attending
The ICJ consists of 15 judges from all continents, and ITLOS has as many as 21 judges.
Quite differently, the arbitrators at the South China Sea arbitral tribunal are appointed, and, there are altogether five of them. It only needs three out
of the five arbitrators to give an arbitral award.
What's more, on an important issue like the South China Sea dispute, not only does the tribunal have no arbitrators from Asia, but also the arbitrators lack
professional knowledge on the complicated background information on the South
China Sea area, making it impossible for them to give objective and independent
"The representation of the tribunal's members is seriously lacking, causing suspicion to the tribunal's justice," said Kong Lingjie, deputy director at
Wuhan University's China Institute of Boundary and Ocean Studies.
The mastermind of the selection